Sunday, March 15, 2020

Terrorism in Political Protest

Terrorism in Political Protest Terrorism can be defined as a premeditated, politically motivated violence directed against noncombatant targets, by sub-national groups to achieve political, economic or religious ends.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Terrorism in Political Protest specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More International terrorism can be considered as the one which involves citizens or a territory of more than one country (Cottle 34). In many instances, the aims of terrorists are similar to those of political groups whose views have to be dominant over those of their opponents. Terrorism is used to achieve progress within a short time than the pace in their current political atmosphere. It can also be said that terrorism is a more advanced stage of failed political process that starts with inequities and injustice. It moves from frustrated attempts of reform that breeds fear and temper, to confrontations related to politics that erupts in vio lence. They can be used to rationalize the use of any type of violence against any target (Sanders 95). Flashpoint (para.3) states that there are several forms of terrorism in existence. In urbanized countries, the traditional guerrilla warfare is mostly not appropriate. The reason behind is that rebels when attacked by superior forces cannot achieve and get hold of control over territory. In addition, they can not manage employing hit and run attacks effectively without having large losses. This resulted to formation of a new doctrine known as the urban guerrilla warfare which used terrorist tactics. In the 1990s a new form of international terrorism was formed. The group appeared to be less rational, not focused, deadly, and more international. This form of terrorism was known as Islamist Terrorism (Flashpoint para.4). An example of a recent terrorism attack is the one that happened in Southeast Asia in the year 2005. Since September 2001, the Australian prime minister had drawn s ignificant political progress. The political progress was a result of well-worn clichà © that changed the world on that tragic day (Club De Madrid para4). Force was needed to do away with the growing frustrations in politics, existential temper, and logistic ability for the hijackers to plan and implement the plots that had been evident for long. This was growing incrementally to anyone who was prepared to listen to the voices ignored from official avenues of political authority. The modern international politics took very little attention on the marginal voices (Club De Madrid para.8).Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Australia’s commitment to Southeast Asia rose up to governmental level since 1970s. Even after the rise, contacts were only confined to the elites. Out of fearing antagonizing authoritarian regimes, Australian governments and diplomats cut thei r relationships with groups and individuals who were not from their regional political establishments (Club De Madrid, para.9). Taking advantage from the observations, a wider set of affairs which constituted formal and informal voices from the opposition reduced the distress which was as a result of attacks by terrorist in Bali after 11th September 2001. Club De Madrid asserts that the of effects of the attacks on September 11, and attacks at Bali which left many people dead was the beginning of a deep feeling of insecurity within Australian society (para.12). The conservative government of Howard preyed on public confusion that was caused by attacks on September 11 and the attacks at Bali. Their intention was to demonize seekers of asylums who came to Australia from Muslim countries (Club De Madrid, para.13). Club De Madrid. Terrorism in Southeast Asia: Australia as part of the problem. 22nd Feb 2005. Web.13th Mar 2011. Cottle, Sarah. Reporting demonstrations and protest: public spheres, public screens, in: mediatized conflict: developments in media and conflict studies. Berkishire: Open University Press, 2006. Print. Flashpoints. ‘Terrorism political violence: Guide to world conflicts. N. d. Web.13th Feb 2011.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Terrorism in Political Protest specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sanders, Karen. communication in opposition, protest and violence, in: communicating politics in the twenty-first century. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire, 2009. Print.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Generational marketing and social media Case Study

Generational marketing and social media - Case Study Example The baby boomers generation used to report to work every day, from their homes. Generation X has both people who stay either at work or at home. A people of generation Y are those who are mobile because the advanced technology enables them to work from anywhere. Generation Y prefers portable machines, generation X uses both portable and fixed machines while baby boomers use machines wherever they were installed. The baby boomers could work using primary knowledge. Generation started demanding for advanced knowledge but generation Y required more of the learned people (must have attended college or university). The communication media among these generations depended on number of tasks to be performed. Generation Y needed mobile phones because they had a lot to attend to. General marketing involves planning an executing the conception, promotion, pricing and distributing ideas, products or goods and services to develop exchanges that satisfy organizational and individual goals. Things that can be marketed include products and services, experiences and events, people, places and properties, organizations, information and ideas. The market categories are; consumer, business, global, government and nonprofit. Marketing acts as integrative function while the customer acts as the controlling function. Social media refers to interactive platforms through which people and communities share the content or information generated by the user (Hally, 2005). They are also social software hat mediate human communication. Some of the social media types include: Dell is a company that manufactures computers- Dell computers. The target audience for Dell computers is the institutions (teachers or lecturers, students and subordinate staff), because they require computers for both learning purposes and institutional operations (Koehn, 2001). Social media are effective in marketing Dell’s computers. The company collects ideas and insights from its customers, which it

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

An Twentieth Century Overview of Fashions Transient Trends Essay

An Twentieth Century Overview of Fashions Transient Trends - Essay Example The essay "An Twentieth Century Overview of Fashions Transient Trends" talks about trends in fashion in the 20th century. Basically until the turn of the century, there was a definite preference for plumpness of women in Western civilization. You can see it in the art, where you're pretty hard-pressed to find an image of a thin woman," says Laura Fraser. (42) That began to change between 1900 and 1920, "when it was possible for the first time for people†¦to have enough to eat that the status symbol flipped. Once seen as a sign of health and prosperity to be fat - now there was an elitism to being thin. According to Alexis Gregory (38-49), in the early 1900’s women’s dress was sturdy, heavy, and rigid, a reflection of the Edwardian period of dress, and the silhouette was that of an hour glass, now that being plump was unfashionable. Female bodies were stuffed into a miniscule waist, and then padded in other areas such as the bosom and buttocks. The effect was that o f a waspish figure. This hourglass shape became more of an "S" curve when longer lined "health" corsets became fashionable. They supported the spine and abdomen, but it made the fashionable woman look as if she was always leaning forward. As always, historical upheaval creates change in all sectors of society, including fashion. World War I being an important event in the â€Å"teens,† fashion suddenly became much more practical to accommodate other needs. The Great War (1914 to 1918) changed people's lives in many ways. Men went to war and women were left at home to do the jobs formerly performed by men. Women's shoes and clothing needed to be more practical so they could move freely and perform job duties. Women's clothing imitated a man's clothing as they were taking on a more masculine role. (Barker, 133) Events like the women's suffrage movement caused fashion to take on a new dimension. The corseted waist abandoned, the hobble skirt that imitated "harem" skirts of the Middle East became fashionable. Paul Poiret, a popular designer of the time, is credited with this fashion movement leaning toward Eastern influence. However, taking very tiny steps also became immensely popular, presumably to exaggerate the fact that a woman's stride is shorter than a man's. Some skirts were so narrow that it was nearly impossible to move. For concern over splitting the skirt, women sometimes wore a length of cord to keep their legs from moving too much. After the War in 1918 the Suffragettes won the right to vote in the United Kingdom, and the same happened in America in 1920. Fashion continued to be more casual throughout the 1920's. After the war, the values of the older generation that had created the war were questioned and discredited. The culture became enamored with youth, American culture in particular. Fashion looked toward the younger crowd for inspiration. The "College Man" and "The Flapper" were the new icons of fashion, young and strong and smart. What was the effect on women They began dieting to achieve the teenage shape of a young girl-flatter, thinner, and with long waistlines to hide adult curves. Brasseries were created to flatten breasts with the appearance of immaturity. "In the 1920s, stylish women put their breasts under cover, with constricting devices like the one from the Boyish Form Brassiere Company of New York, guaranteed to 'give you that boy-like flat appearance.'" (Henig, 1) How did the Great Depression affect women's fashion The fashionable dress of the day reflects a determination to grow up, to do penance for

Friday, January 31, 2020

Legalize Prostitution Essay Example for Free

Legalize Prostitution Essay Legalize Prostitution BY rwl 9680101 Stand-Alone Project, Part A: Select a contemporary legal issue discussed during this course. Select a topic that interests you. Perform the research. Prostitution: Ethics to Legitimize the Business Many people find the ethical considerations of the death penalty to be highly controversial. However, another highly controversial topic is the legalization of prostitution. Considering my knowledge on this subject and talking to average women who arent prostitutes, IVe come to the conclusion that prostitution should be legalized. The courts and the police have more to contend with than two adult eople having consensual sex. Prostitution has a long and interesting history. Its mentioned in numerous texts and often referred to as the oldest profession. Indeed, it has always been a common way for women to make money, even in biblical times. It wasnt until Christianity and the Bible condemned prostitution within versus such as Proverbs 23:27-28, For a prostitute is a deep pit and a wayward wife is a narrow well. Like a bandit she lies in wait, and multiplies the unfaithful among men. Basically, prostitutes were shunned for their corruption of married men as a moral conflict. Historically, it was common to trade women for property, pleasure and used as alliances between countries and kingdoms. A person can be against prostitution all he or she wants to, but the fact remains that prostitution happened in the past and will continue to happen in the future. Its a common act of the sexes where biological needs can ou t way monetary cost and societal norm ethical barriers. The business minded culture would call this supply and demand and the blue collar worker would call it an honest days work for an honest days pay. Either way, its not that legitimate kingdoms or governments have not recognized prostitution hroughout history, but it appears that they merely renamed and Justified it into something legitimate. History also reminds us that in many ancient cultures, female prostitution was an accepted profession for many women, especially those who could not earn a living any other way husbands killed in war or died from laboring. It wasnt until the church especially the Christian church decided that sex was bad and that prostitution became a sordid form of employment. Even then, on and off, prostitution and brothels enjoyed varying levels of acceptance in the public eye. Some cities and towns had entire red light districts where brothels were, if not welcomed, at least tolerated, so long as the owners and management made their donations to the local law enforcement. Thus, while strictly illegal, the proliferation of prostitution enabled police corruption to flourish as well. The roots of prostitution may be more evolutionary than previously thought stemming from hereditary instincts of our long forgotten ancestry. A study was conducted in University in Singapore which was accepted for publication in the Journal Animal Behavior (Dec, 2007). In his study of the macaque monkeys he discovered that the mount of grooming a male performs on a female prior to a sexual interaction is related to the supply/demand ratio of females per male and males to females at the time of the grooming. Heres where that supply and demand or an honest days work for an honest days pay philosophy comes into play. Basically, male monkeys especially lower status ones have to groom more and longer to get some female action when there are fewer females around. Gumert, analyzed a wild population of long-tailed macaques at TanJung Puting National Park in Indonesia, from 2003 to Dr. Gumert analyzed the long-tailed macaques from 2003 to 2005 located at 005. the TanJung Putting National Park in Indonesia.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Importance of Change in Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451 Essay -- Ray Bra

Importance of Change in Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  What is change? Webster's Dictionary, defines change as to cause to become different; alter; transform; convert. Many things, people, and world events are able to change. Years of peace may be shattered by one act of terrorism. Technology changes how people interact and work in the world. People also change. Many do not see any wrongdoing internally, and remain the way they are. However, there might be outside factors that help them realize what is wrong with them or the lifestyle they choose to take part in. According to Preston Bradley, "I don't care how much a man may consider himself a failure, I believe in him, for he can change the thing that is wrong in his life any time he is ready and prepared to do it. Whenever he develops the desire, he can take away from his life the thing that is defeating it. The capacity for reformation and change lies within." Throughout Fahrenheit 451, Montag, a dedicated fireman and book burner, sees pleasure and titillation from burning books and destroying lifetimes of important ideas. When outside influences put confusion in him, he begins a series of changes, eventually becoming a revolutionary in a society where books are valued.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Many factors contribute to the changes found in Montag. One of the first influences during the story is the exquisitely observant Clarisse McClellan. She is different from all of the others in society who like to head for a Fun Park to bully people around," or "break windowpanes in the Car Wrecker." She likes to observe people, and she observes Montag, diagnosing him as a "strange...fireman." He is "not like the others" because when she talks, he looks at her, and when she said something about the moon, he looks at it. Clarisse tells Montag that he is different from the other people. He has something inside of him that makes him "put up with" her. Clarisse makes Montag look at himself for the first time when she asks him, "Are you happy?" Montag thinks that she is talking nonsense, but he realizes that he truly is not happy. Something is missing from his life. Looking at his lifestyle, he found that the "only thing that I [Montag] positively knew was gone was the books I'd [he'd] burned in ten or twelve years." Clarisse helped Montag to start to think for himself, instead of letting the society... ...he society outside values books, and by joining it, Montag shows that he is changed from rebel to the ultimate rebel, a soldier of an army that has a strong influential power because of it's attraction to books and their meanings.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In Fahrenheit 451, Montag, a dedicated fireman and book burner changes character and opinion through the help of influential characters and events, gradually transforming into an individualistic person of the society, a rebellious soldier in an army of readers. Montag first changes when he meets Clarisse, opening his eyes and being able to see his own faults and those of the society. He changes further when he questions himself and thinks about his lifestyle after learning how powerful the meaning in the books are when the woman insists on dying. Montag learns the importance of books in the society when he meets Faber, learning how the meaning in books can be applied to what is happening in society. Killing Beatty shows his change from being a passive reader and spy to an active revolutionary. Finally, Montag's changes are completed when he joins the organization that values books, therefore becoming a soldier of an influential army.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

To What Extent Do Sociologists Agree That Religion Is a Force for Social Change?

To what extent do Sociologists agree that religion is a force for social change? Throughout history, there has been an on-going debate as to whether or not religion is a conservative force, or a force for social change. Whilst many Sociologists such as Durkheim, see religion as a positive conservative force; creating social harmony and solidarity, others disagree claiming religion to be a strong force for social change and as neo-Marxist Otto Maduro believes, religion has the power to initiate revolutionary change.Firstly, both Functionalism and Marxism takes on the approach that religion is a conservative force as both hold the view that religion aids society, in terms of allowing it to stay within its existing practices. However, the two perspectives disagree on why and how religion helps to do this. Functionalist, Durkheim stated that religion is essential in creating shared norms and values. He claimed that practices of religion and in the law, help people to live their lives.In modern Western society there are thirteen bishops in the House of Lords, who all influence which laws are made and passed, in accordance with Christian teachings. Such issues as abortion, euthanasia, and divorce are discussed and decisions are made about them, which are influenced by the church. Through this system of having a religious guidance, a value consensus is created, by which most of society accepts. This is also known as a collective consciousness which Durkheim taught, formed â€Å"social solidarity†; leading to a harmonious and stable environment for people to live in.Durkheim and many other Functionalists viewed social solidarity as highly important, as they believed it allowed people to feel socially supported reducing the risk of people feeling a sense of anomie. Durkheim himself was very focused on the â€Å"sacred† and â€Å"profane†. He claimed that religious procedures are something which societies see as being divine. For example, a supernatu ral being such as an omnipotent God, would be sacred. However, not only that but something does not have to be scared for it to be divine, thus meaning, as the Bible is full of religious teachings it is a divine object.Durkheim emphasised that divine matters, cause strong feelings of respect and defence. These strong beliefs can cause passionate emotions of dedication and encouragement thus establishing group solidarity; again ruling out the sense of anomie. The Functionalist argued that in a more profane manor, the church unites the community by having events like, tea afternoons, fates, jumble etc. This way the church is permitting people to give something back to their society but also receive help or companionship if they need it. Nevertheless, Durkheim is criticized for discarding the idea of a sacred being, being the main attribute of religion.On the other hand, Neo-Marxist Otto Maduro observes how religion contains the authority to inspire a revolt thus generating social chan ge. Maduro refereed to the â€Å"liberation theology† to put his view forward. Between the 1950’s and 1960’s, South America was largely Catholic but many priests started to separate themselves from the Catholic Church; claiming that it was their duty to assist and liberate those who were being oppressed. This is when the â€Å"liberation theology† first started to be taught. These teachings opposed the current situation; leading to a revolution.Oscar Romero was a Catholic bishop who spoke out about the injustice of so many people, and for this he was assonated. His death sparked a huge amount of outrage and fury by the people he was trying to help, groups such as the Democratic Revolutionary front united to oppose what the government was doing, in terms of exploiting the people. Maduro used the â€Å"liberation theology† to highlight how religion can perform as a force for social change. Another example, of religion being a force for social change is the Apartheid system in South Africa.This was the legal racial separation of people from1948 until 1993, which meant that various races were separated into different districts and  discriminated  against in coherence with their colour. White people had priority over housing, jobs, education, and political power, whereas the coloured people were forced to live in poverty and suffer. Reverend Trevor Huddleston travelled to South Africa and spoke out peacefully against the Apartheid, which soon led to his arrest but also put a lot of attention on what was occurring in South Africa for other countries to take notice of.Soon after the arrest, Western democratic countries put into place anti-apartheid policies and took action. South Africa was forbidden from sporting events and trading was made more difficult for them, forcing for them to come to an arrangement. By 1980 the Apartheid had completely broken down and black South Africans were freed. Desmond Tutu then became the first ever black Arch Bishop, underlining how significantly religion had led to social change, for the better. Conversely, Marxists view religion as acting as a conservative force because they propose it prevents revolutionary change.Marx argued that religion is an important form of social control. All through history the church has acted in such a way that people conform to it. This was done through God and Hell, which were exercised as a deterrent. The people in power quickly realised that religion had a great hold over the population and so it became part of â€Å"the power group†. For example, Kings used to give money or land to the church in exchange, the church would preach the peasants whatever the monarchy told them to. Even in today’s society, Queen Elizabeth still has the title â€Å"Defender of the faith† and she is also head of the Church of England.Illustrating that those in power, still have control over the church, and what the republic hear. Marx explo red how the dominant ideology was conveyed through sermons, and Bible teachings. These sermons and Bible teachings could be said to consist of a false hope for some people. Many of the Bible stories communicate that idea that if you are poor in this life and you suffer, when you die you will be rewarded by God in Heaven. These promises of a perfect afterlife, keep the working classes in their place; reducing their aspiration to change society.The Caste system in India is a good model of how religion keeps people in their places. The Hindu Caste system separates the people into four different classes, depending on their occupation and family background. The Kshatriyas are the top class and according to the traditional Hindu principles, they are there to protect the people. The Chandalas also known as the untouchables are the lowest class, and are discriminated against as they are believed not to follow the â€Å"true† Hindu faith. It used to be that these people were not allow ed to walk around the village or city during day time, or speak to anyone other than other Untouchables.The Cate system was enforced through law books, religious teachings, kings and the threatening of being punished in this life and the next if you question which class you are placed in to; again preventing people from changing their social conditions due to fear of God but leaving the alienated. In contrast to this, Althusser rejects the concept of alienation because he feels it is unscientific, and based on an idealistic theory that human being have â€Å"true self†. Nevertheless, Functionalist Michael Robert Bella stated that in modern societies that state connects with religion to unite the country.This is known as a â€Å"Civil religion†. Through creating a religion around the idea of a nation state, the religion acts as a value consensus; creating social solidarity. For example, in America the people pledge their allegiance to the flag, to honour their country a nd to God. On the dollar bills, the words â€Å"In God we trust† are printed, to remind people that God is there for them no matter what. Bella accentuates that religion is not a force for social change as it united a society and makes it stronger as it holds something in common, that being a belief in God.On the contrary, Neo-Marxist Gramsci looked into Hegemony, which is the way in which the ruling class maintain their privileged positions by making them seemed justified. In this instance, Gramsci looks at how hegemony occurs through religious ideas, rather than coercion. The ruling class rely heavily on the majority of the population consenting to their rule. During the 1920’s Gramsci observed that there was a large amount of traditional moral control of the Church in helping to gain support for Mussolini’s fascist regime in Italy.This highlights how the ruling class and religion combined to reach a certain goal, and to achieve the population’s approva l. However, Gramsci also specified that religion does have to potential to develop and either support or challenge the ruling class. For example, The Archbishop of Canterbury recently published his highly critical feelings of the Conservative parties polices. Also the â€Å"Stop Capitalism† campaign outside St Pauls Cathedral was primarily supported by the church; allowing the protesters to correspond their thoughts on our society.This stressed Gramsci’s point that the church is not directly under the influence of the ruling class, and so does have the potential to create social change if an anti-hegemony situation occurs. As well at this, Functionalist Parsons, declared that religion is a positive force in times of uncertainty. People turn to religion to answer those â€Å"ultimate questions† about life, such as â€Å"What is the point? † Parsons maintained that in situations like death, marriage and birth, people turn to God for answers and hope. Religi on does not create social change, as it is not intending to do so.Religion is there for when a person is scared, looking for salvation or just needs someone to care about them. Similar to Parsons, Malinowski, who was an anthropologist, carried out a study to find out if all societies had a religion. He travelled to an ancient society in The Trobiand. Malinowski observed that when the men went out of the lagoon to fish, entering into the open water, it was seen as a highly dangerous event, which not everyone would come back from. He then went on to see that before the men left the lagoon a ritual of yam giving took place.It appeared to Malinowski, that this was a religious ceremony which gave consolation to the families as well as wider society. Consequently, a Functionalist may assert the point that religion does not provide social change, as again it is there to produce social solidarity, in the way that it aids people, giving them something in common again to minimise the risk of anyone feeling unwanted or alone. Conversely, recent research on the Trobiand islands has challenged Malinowski’s research and his interpretation of the meaning of yam giving.Whilst carrying out his research Malinowski did not speak directly to the people, he simply observed; placing his own version of events onto the situation. Modern research has shown, through the use if interpertistic techniques, that the yam giving was a marriage intension, much like a proposal rather than being worried about the fishermen. The modern researches were not looking at what the action was, unlike Malinowski, they were looking at what the meaning behind the action was (commonly known as Verstehen. ) This new research brings to light the fact that these people, who appeared to have no religion, were living happily with each other.This could them further suggest that if religion was introduced to them, their society could change because it something they have never needed to consider before, co nsequently implying that religion could be a force for social change, if it is introduced as a completely alien topic. In addition, Weber wrote â€Å"The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism† examining how Protestantism was a huge part of how society changed into a capitalist economy. He claims that the values of ascetic Calvinist Protestantism shaped a work ethic which encouraged capitalism.Calvinists believed in â€Å"predestination†, the theory that God chooses whether you go to heaven or hell before you are born. This formed a psychological problem for Calvinists, as they did not know if they were one of the â€Å"elect†. As a solution to this they developed a set of values that expressed hard work, frugality and the growth of wealth. These ethics inherently led to the â€Å"spirit of capitalism†, and Weber assured that this is why Capitalism first developed in Northern Europe, where Calvinism and Protestantism were most commanding. Weberâ₠¬â„¢s research is a firm paradigm of religion generating social transformation.His research is still useful when looking at today’s societies, with countries such as Germany and Sweden which converted to Protestantism, and are model countries economically. Whereas, countries which are still Catholic like Spain and Greece are in a financial crisis. Lastly, many feminists view religion as being a patriarchal institution that presents inequalities through religious beliefs; functioning via a patriarchal ideology. Feminist’s dispute that most of the religious organisations are male dominated. Judaism and Catholicism forbid women from becoming priests.Karen Armstrong debates that the clear discrimination against women in this manner, is evidence of women’s demotion. As well as this, in places of worship the two sexes are often segregated, the women being put at the back perhaps behind screen, whilst the men are in the sacred areas. Sometimes women are not allowed to participate in the practices, this maybe reading out a passage or preaching. In the Islamic culture, women are menstruating are not allowed to the Qur’an and could be asked to leave the place of worship all together, so as not to pollute of contaminate the sacred environment.In many of the sacred texts, like the Bible, women are stereotyped as a temptress and blamed for anything that goes wrong, For example, in Genesis Eve creates the fall of humanity by picking the fruit from the forbidden tree of knowledge. This is ironic as the entirety of the Bible stories are supposedly written by men. However, before the rise of Christianity women were not always seen as the males subordinate. Armstrong identifies that in early religions women were central in the beliefs, being the mother of goodness and nature. It wasn’t until Patriarchy began that women lost their godly statuses.This could suggest that when Christianity rose, and people read about the evil of women, Patriarchy was promoted, as women are referred to in the Bible as â€Å"man’s helper†; giving men power to rule over women. Therefore, a feminist may argue that religion does create social change but in a negative way, as it inspired men to take control of women and oppress them, as punishment for their â€Å"sins†. In conclusion, Functionalism and Marxism have strong arguments which describe how religions help to maintain social order and counteract social change.A Marxist may also say social change does not occur through religion, as the ruling class want it to stay the same. Juxtaposing this view, history has revealed that in some extreme cases such as the â€Å"Liberation theology† religion has been a positive force for social change. Whereas, a feminist could say religion has been a negative force for social change as seen throughout the history of women’s oppression. For that reason, I would say religion is a force for social change, but only in extreme conditions where the change happens on a considerable scale.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Management Controlling - 2152 Words

How to achieve an effective controlling in an organization By the late 1970s, a successful economic reform program launched in China, many enterprise grasped this opportunity and enjoy a huge achievement during this rare reformation. While the market transferred to a developed market economic, however, enterprise faced more challenges than the past and earning quick profit seems to be more difficult. Ultimately, many of these enterprises shut down due to own ineffective controlling process, failing in the tougher market. It is come to an agreement that in a mature market, the crucial factor that whether a competitive enterprise enables to settle in the market is determined by the effectiveness of both its internal and external†¦show more content†¦1: The external controlling—organizational system The emphasis of bureaucracy is on hierarchical organization and the detailed division of labor. This restricts personal feelings and behaviors on the basis of written rules so as to achieve the purpose of the organization. (Olsen, 2006) In other words, bureaucracy relies on a strict and mature organizational system. The system comprises precise regulation and rules to implement effective controlling. In an organization, advantages from the system control can largely benefit the whole organization, which include, lowering the cost of control, keeping high efficiency operations, maintaining a fairly and justice workplace environment. (Salaman, 2005) In the long run, a perfect system can ensure the consistency of the organization’s activities, and an equal workplace environment can greatly release the workplace conflict between the managers and the employees. However, SliÃ… ¾ienÄâ€" and VaitkienÄâ€" (2007) point out that a perfect system controlling depends on two factors. On the one hand, it is hard to make a perfect system that satisfied the interest of everyone. Beside s, it may be impossible to make predictive and far-sighted regulations to be able to solve all the difficulties. At the same time, even though the system itself is perfect enough, the process to implement these rules seems to be more difficult. Where the executors can make mistakes in this process, andShow MoreRelatedManagement Controlling1991 Words   |  8 PagesControlling Controlling consists of verifying whether everything occurs in conformities with the plans adopted, instructions issued and principles established. Controlling ensures that there is effective and efficient utilization of organizational resources so as to achieve the planned goals. 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The most commonly cited functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, although some identify additional functions. The functions of management define the process of management as distinct from accounting, finance, marketing, and other business functions. These functions provide a useful way of classifying information about management, and most basic management texts sinceRead MoreManagement-Controlling Function916 Words   |  4 Pagescompleted in ways that lead to attainment of the organization’s goals. Controlling is related to each of the other function management. Controlling builds on planning, organizing and leading. What is Control? Control is the task of ensuring that activities are carried out and are providing the desired results. In simple terms controlling means setting a target, measuring performance and taking corrective actions required. Management Control Strategy Managers can use one or a combination of three controlRead MoreThe Function Of Management Is Controlling Essay2234 Words   |  9 PagesThe final step in the function of management is controlling. Controlling is broken down into a process that consists of determining the stands to measure performance, then your company measures the actual performance, and compares that performance with the standard, and if needed, corrective action will fall into place. Towards the end of the fiscal year, you begin creating new goals for your company to meet. Goals can consist of customer satisfaction, financial, production, and employee performanceRead More Controlling Process in Management Essay1429 Words   |  6 PagesControlling Process in Management Controlling is directly related to planning. The controlling process ensures that plans are being implemented properly. In the functions of management cycle - planning, organizing, directing, and controlling - planning moves forward into all the other functions, and controlling reaches back. Controlling is the final link in the functional chain of management activities and brings the functions of management cycle full circle. Control is the process throughRead MoreEssay on Management Planning and Controlling661 Words   |  3 Pagesof the Management Control System choices at the Bellagio In the case of Bellagio Casino and Resort, the three main contingent factors in the determination of the Management Control System alternatives are discussed below; Organizational factors: By analyzing the organizational factors, some of the risks that determine the Management Control System include the business risk factors such as conflict and terrorism. The business and corporate espionage is aligned to the code of management controlRead MoreFunctions Of Management : Planning, Directing And Controlling Essay933 Words   |  4 Pagesfour major functions of management in order to succeed. The success of any business organization depends on how well these functions are applied. These management functions make it possible for a business to handle its business strategy, tactical and operational decisions in a more efficient and effective manner. The aim of this paper is to discuss the four main functions of management: Planning, Organizing, Directing and controlling. a. Planning - This is the first management function and it is justRead MoreThe 4th Funciton of Management: Controlling Essays1245 Words   |  5 PagesThe 4th function of Management: Controlling Controlling is the process of monitoring, comparing and correcting work performance (Robins, 420). The controlling procedure is an indispensable key function of management for a few reasons. In any case, it supports supervisors to assess whether objectives have been met or not and the reason behind it. Furthermore, it permits mangers to empower their workers more as having a viable controlling framework provides feedback and data on employees work andRead MoreThe Four Functions Of Management: Planning, Management, Leading and Controlling1225 Words   |  5 Pagesand all moving toward the goal of the company. Some people may think that this person is the owner but most of the time this person is the manager. Successful managers must know, and be able to apply the four functions of management: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, to their daily work routine. Planning is specifying the goals to be achieved and deciding in advance the appropriate action needed to achieve those goals (Bateman Snell, 2007). All businesses, new and established, must